In 1992, the 73rd amendment mandated a three tier structure with Panchayats.

FUNCTIONS:

 Monitoring of the implementation of 73rd amendment. The salient features of this amendment are as follows:

  1. Organization of Gram Sabhas;
  2. Creation of a three-tier Panchayati Raj Structure at the District (Zila), Block and Village levels;
  3. Almost all posts, at all levels to be filled by direct elections;
  4. Minimum age for contesting elections to the Panchayati Raj institutions be twenty one years;
  5. The post of Chairman at the District and Block levels should be filled by indirect election;
  6. There should be reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes in Panchayats, in proportion to their population, and for women in Panchayats up to one-third seats;
  7. State Election Commission to be set up in each State to conduct elections to Panchayati Raj institutions;
  8. The tenure of Panchayati Raj institutions is five years, if dissolved earlier, fresh elections to be held within six months; and
  9. A State Finance Commission is to be set up in each State every five years.
     Making PRIs secure economic development and social justice in their respective areas.
     Funding research studies, workshops and seminars for development of Panchayats. Term of a Panchayat
     The tenure is 5 years.
     If dissolved earlier, elections are held within 6 months.
     There is a provision for State Election Commission, for superintendence, direction, and control of the preparation of electoral rolls and conduct of elections to Panchayats.
    Powers and Responsibilities of Panchayats
     State Legislatures may endow Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable the Panchayats to become institutions of self-government at the grassroots level.
     Responsibility may be given to them to prepare plans for economic development and social justice.
     Schemes of economic development and social justice with regard to 29 important matters mentioned in XI schedule such as agriculture, primary and secondary education, health and sanitation, drinking water, rural housing, the welfare of weaker sections, social forestry and so forth may be made by them.

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