Context –

    Copenhagen University says the “yet-to-be-named island is… the northernmost point of Greenland and one of the most northerly points of land on Earth


  • Scientists have discovered what is believed to be the world’s northernmost landmass — a yet-to-be named island north of Greenlandthat could soon be swallowed up by seawaters.
  • Researchers came upon the landmass on an expedition in July, and initially thought they had reached Oodaaq, up until now the northernmost island on the planet.
  • Oodaaq is some 700 km south of the North Pole, while the new island is 780 m north of Oodaaq.
  • The small island, measuring roughly 30 metres across and a peak of about three metres, consists of seabed mud as well as moraine – soil and rock left behind by moving glaciers.
  • The team said they would recommend it is named “Qeqertaq Avannarleq”, which means “the northernmost island” in Greenlandic.



Context –

The Taliban’s takeover of Afghanistan overshadowed a summit in Iraq on Saturday attended by key regional leaders, with French President Emmanuel Macron warning of the threat Islamic State group jihadists pose.

Concept –

  • Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost sub region of the continent of Asia.
  • It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle Eastand almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Mesopotamia, the Levant, the island of Cyprus, the Sinai Peninsula, and partly Transcaucasia.
  • The region is considered to be separated from Africa by the Isthmus of Suezin Egypt, and separated from Europe by the waterways of the Turkish Straits and the watershed of the Greater Caucasus.
  • Central Asia lies to its northeast, while South Asia lies to its east.
  • Eight seas surround the region(clockwise): the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.



Context –

The Brahmaputra and several of its tributaries have swollen following incessant rains in Assam and adjoining Arunachal Pradesh, where erosion has affected dozens of villages in the Siang River belt

The affected districts in Assam are Baksa, Barpeta, Biswanath, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Golaghat, Jorhat, Lakhimpur, Majuli, Morigaon, Sivasagar, Sonitpur and Tinsukia.

About Brahmaputra

  • It originates under the name of Siang or Dihang, from the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake.
  • It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Tributaries: Dibang, Lohit, Siang, Burhi Dihing, Tista, and Dhansari.
  • It is a perennial riverand has several peculiar characteristics due to its geography and prevailing climatic conditions.
  • It is flooded twice annually. One flood is caused by the melting of the Himalayan snow in summer and the other due to the monsoon flows.
  • These pose a concern for the population and food security in the lower riparian states of India and Bangladesh.
  • The river is in itself dynamic as frequent landslides and geological activity force it to change course very often.
  • The world’s largest riverine island, Majuli Islandis on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Assam.
  • The Brahmaputra drains into the Bay of Bengalbefore forming a huge delta along with the Ganga.



Context –

The Centre is set to list India’s largest insurance firm, state-owned Life Insurance Corporation of India, on the stock exchanges to help meet disinvestment targets for the year.

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the IPO in July. Earlier, actuarial firm Milliman Advisors was appointed to assess the embedded value of LIC.

Concept –

  • IPO is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market.
  • Primary market deals with new securities being issued for the first time.It is also known as the new issues market.
  • It is different from secondary market where existing securities are bought and sold. It is also known as the stock market or stock exchange.
  • It is when an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or an offer for sale of its existing securities or both for the first time to the public.
  • It is generally used by new and medium-sized firms that are looking for funds to growand expand their business.


Context –

Congress leaders have criticized the Indian Council for Historical Research for ‘omitting’ the contribution of Jawaharlal Nehru during the ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’ to commemorate the 75th year of Independence.

About –

  • It is an autonomous body of the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • It was established under Societies Registration Act(Act XXI of 1860) in 1972.
  • Objectives of the ICHR: To bring historians togetherand provide a forum for exchange of views between them and to promote, accelerate and coordinate research in history.
  • The Council provides fellowships and financial assistanceto the young teachers in colleges, universities and registered research organizations, as well as to senior scholars.
  • Publishes a biannual Journal – the Indian Historical Review, and another journal Itihas in Hindi.
  • The ICHR receives grants-in-aid from the Department of Higher Education, grants-in-aid from various Indian states, private donations, and the proceeds of revenues from the sale of publications of the ICHR.



Context –

  • In March this year, four Indian Air Force (IAF) officers who completed a year-long training in the Russian Space Academy as part of India’s Gaganyaan human space flight programme. They will soon return to Russia for getting their space suits made as per individual specifications.
  • The Indian pilots underwent general space training and systems training of the Soyuz MS crewed spacecraft and also had Russian language lessons.
  • The pilots were also trained on crew actions in the event of an abnormal descent module landing — in wooded and marshy areas in winter (completed in February 2020), on the water surface (completed in June 2020) and in the steppe in summer (completed in July 2020). They were also trainedto prepare for sustaining spaceflight factors, such as G-force, hypoxia and pressure drop.
  • In addition to the training, Russia is also assisting the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in other way. “India-Russia Cooperation in the space field, on Gaganyaan would continue in certain other aspects. Russia is helping us with the design of view ports and life support systems.


  • Gaganyaan is a mission by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • Under the Gaganyaan schedule:
    • Three flights will be sent into orbit.
    • There will be two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • The Gaganyaan system module, called the Orbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
  • It will circle Earth at a low-earth-orbitat an altitude of 300-400 km from earth for 5-7 days.
  • Payloads:
    • Crew module –spacecraft carrying human beings.
    • Service module –powered by two liquid propellant engines.
    • It will be equipped with emergency escape and emergency mission abort.
  • GSLV Mk III, also called the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3,)the three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability.
  • Training in Russia:
    • In June 2019, the Human Space Flight Centre of the ISRO and the Russian government-owned Glavkosmos signed a contract for the training, which includes Russian support in the selection of candidates, their medical examination, and space training.
    • The candidates will study in detail the systems of the Soyuz manned spaceship, as well as be trained in short-term weightlessness mode aboard the Il-76MDK aircraft.
      • The Soyuz is a Russian spacecraft.The Soyuz carries people and supplies to and from the space station
      • The Il-76MDKis a military transport plane specially designed for parabolic flights of trainee astronauts and space tourists.