GREATER HYDERABAD MUNICIPAL CORPORATION CERTIFIED WATER PLUS
CONTEXT:

The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) has been certified as Water Plus by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MOHUA) on Friday. It has become the first local body of Telangana to achieve this coveted status in the Swachh Bharat certifications, a statement from the GHMC said. The certifications ranged from ODF (Open Defecation Free), ODF+, ODF++ and Water+, of which the GHMC had already achieved ODF++ status. 2. For this certification, the GHMC was assessed through third party inspections against nine indicators, respectively with regard to safe discharge of sewage, safe cleaning practices, mechanical equipment support, treatment capacities, reuse of treated water, maintenance of drains, cost recovery, grievance redress mechanism, and establishment of sanitation authority and response units.
ABOUT SWACHH BHARAT
Objective:

Swachh Bharat Mission is a massive mass movement that seeks to create a Clean India by 2019. the Indian government has decided to launch the swachh bharat mission on October 2, 2014.The mission will cover all rural and urban areas.The urban component of the mission will be implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development, and the rural component by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) comprises two main components for creating clean villages – creating open defecation free (ODF) villages and managing solid and liquid waste in villages.
SWACHH BHARAT MISSION-URBAN 

The programme includes elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices..

 The total assistance available for construction of an individual toilet is Rs 4000/- from the Central Government and an amount of Rs 1333/- at least from the State Government. However in the case of the North East States, the states are required to contribute only Rs 400/- per individual toilet. However, there is no bar on releasing any extra funds at any stage by the ULB/State Government through additional resources..

 The expected assistance for construction of community toilets – Central Government will contribute upto 40% of the cost of construction of community toilet as a VGF/ outright grant. As per SBM guidelines, the States/UTs shall provide an additional 13.33% for the said component. The NE and special category states shall be required to contribute 4% only. The balance shall have to be arranged through innovative mechanisms by the urban local body. The approximate cost per seat for a community toilet is Rs 65,000/-. SWACHH BHARAT-URBAN 2.0 This will be a continuation of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), with the following components for funding and implementation across all statutory towns, viz.

 Sustainable sanitation (construction of toilets)

 Wastewater treatment, including fecal sludge management in all ULBs with less than 1 lakh population (this is a new component added to SBM-U 2.0)

 Solid Waste Management

 Information, Education and Communication, and

 Capacity building.

At the end of the Mission, the following outcomes are expected to be achieved:

 All statutory towns will become ODF+ certified

 All statutory towns with less than 1 lakh population will become ODF++ certified ,

 50% of all statutory towns with less than 1 lakh population will become Water+ certified

 All statutory towns will be at least 3-star Garbage Free rated as per MoHUA’s Star Rating Protocol for Garbage Free cities

 Bio-remediation of all legacy dumpsites.

SWACHH BHARAT-GRAMIN

The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The SBM(G) was launched on 2nd October 2014 to ensure cleanliness in India and make it Open Defecation Free (ODF) in Five Years. It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised.

Said to be the world’s largest behaviour change programme, it achieved the seemingly impossible task by generating a people’s movement at the grassroots. All stakeholders worked together from 2014 to 2019 and in a time bound manner ensured that, as on 2nd October 2019 all districts across India, declared themselves as ODF.

SWACHH BHARAT-GRAMIN(2.0)

Having achieved the milestone of an ODF India in a time bound manner in the last five years from 2014 to 2019, the work on sanitation and the behaviour change campaign has to continue to sustain the gains made under the programme and also to ensure no one is left behind and the overall cleanliness(Sampoorn Swachhata) in villages as well.

In February 2020, the Phase-II of the SBM(G) with a total outlay of Rs. 1,40,881 crores was approved with a focus on the sustainability of ODF status and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM). SBM(G) Phase-II is planned to be a novel model of convergence between different verticals of financing and various schemes of Central and State Governments. The programme will be implemented in mission mode from 2020-21 to 2024-25.

IMPORTANT SCHEMES COME UNDER SWACHH BHARAT

Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan Rashtriya Swachhata Kosh GOBAR (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources) – DHAN scheme

SCHEMES CONVERGE WITH SWACHH BHARAT

MGNREGA

JAL JEEVAN MISSION

UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE OF PARTIES (COP)
CONTEXT:

Alok Sharma, President-designate, United Nations Conference of Parties (COP), said he hoped India would consider more ambitious emissions targets. Mr. Sharma is visiting India as part of a larger international tour building consensus among nations for concrete outcomes ahead of the 26th round of climate talks.

EARTH SUMMIT 1992

 The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992.

OUTCOMES OF EARTH SUMMIT

 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

 United Nations Convention on Biodiversity

 United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification

THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC):

 The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, while also ensuring that it is achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.

 The central principles of the UNFCCC are Equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC) by which the Convention recognizes developed countries to take lead in addressing climate change.

 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), entered into force in 1994, encouraged the parties to reduce emissions and sought international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and coping with impacts that were, by then, inevitable. 197 countries that have ratified the Convention till now are called Parties to the Convention.

AGREEMENTS UNDER THE UNFCC 1.KYOTO PROTOCOL (KP)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997.Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol is based on the principles and provisions of the Convention and follows its annex-based structure. It only binds developed countries, and places a heavier burden on them under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities”, because it recognizes that they are largely responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere.

The Kyoto Protocol sets binding emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries and economies in transition and the European Union. Overall, these targets add up to an average 5 per cent emission reduction compared to 1990 levels over the five year period 2008–2012 (the first commitment period).

MECHANISMS UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL

 Stimulate sustainable development through technology transfer and investment

 Help countries with Kyoto commitments to meet their targets by reducing emissions or removing carbon from the atmosphere in other countries in a cost-effective way

 Encourage the private sector and developing countries to contribute to emission reduction efforts

1. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

2. Joint implementation

3. Emissions Trading

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

It allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.

Joint implementation

It allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target.Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer.

Emission trading

It allows countries that have emission units to spare – emissions permitted them but not “used” – to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. Doha amendment In Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted for a second commitment period, starting in 2013 and lasting until 2020. However, the Doha Amendment has not yet entered into force; a total of 144 instruments of acceptance are required for entry into force of the amendment.

2.PARIS AGREEMENT

 The Paris Agreement was adopted during 21st COP held in 2015 in Paris. It builds upon the Convention and for the first time binds all nations to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change. The Paris Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, aims at holding the increase in global average
temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

 To reach these ambitious goals, developed countries are mandated to provide appropriate financial flows technology support through a new technology framework and enhanced capacity building support to support action by developing countries.

 The Agreement also provides for enhanced transparency of action and support through a more robust transparency framework with built in flexibilities for developing countries. The Paris Agreement requires all Parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) and to strengthen these efforts in the years ahead.

 The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016.

 Implementation of the Paris Agreement requires economic and social transformation, based on the best available science. The Paris Agreement works on a 5- year cycle of increasingly ambitious climate action carried out by countries. By 2020, countries submit their plans for climate action known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

 The Paris Agreement provides a framework for financial, technical and capacity building support to those countries who need it.

EXERCISE KONKAN 2021
CONTEXT:

 Exercise Konkan 2021 was held between INS Tabar and HMS Westminster on 16 Aug 21 in the English Channel.

 The exercise included the participation of integral helicopters of the two ships and the Falcon Electronic Warfare aircraft.

 A wide range of exercises including co-ordinated anti-submarine procedures, firing drills, combined maritime picture compilation, combat formation maneuvering and replenishment at sea were conducted.

 These along with the diverse professional engagements held earlier in harbour, have enabled Exercise Konkan 2021 consolidate interoperability and helped cement the strong bonds of friendship the between the two navies.

About English Channel

 The English Channel, also known simply as “the Channel,” is the Atlantic’s 30th largest arm, covering approximately 75,000 km2. It is one of the world’s busiest shipping areas, linking southern England, the United Kingdom to northern France.

 The current name, “English Channel,” dates back to the 18th century. Before then, the English mostly referred to the waterway as a “Narrow Sea.

 The English Channel was also known by several other names, including British Sea, British Channel, Oceanus Britannicus (by Ptolemy), and Canalite Anglie (“English Channel” by the Italians). The French refer to the Channel as “la Manche” because of its sleevelike shape.

 The English Channel is a shallow waterway with a maximum depth of 174 m in the Hurd’s Deep underwater valley and an average depth of 63 m. It is 560 km long, with a varying width between 34 and 240 km at the widest point between Saint-Malo Gulf, France and Lyme Bay, England.

 The English Channel’s climate can be described as a temperate maritime climate, with warm summers and cold winters. The channel does not experience an extreme climate, meaning that it can be visited at any time of the year. August is the channel’s warmest month, while the coldest month is January. However, November is the wettest month, with December and January being the driest months.

ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT

Atmanirbhar Bharat which translates to ‘self-reliant India’ is a Hindi phrase used and popularized by the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi and the Government of India in relation to economic development in the country during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, the term is used as an umbrella concept in relation to making India “a bigger and more important part of the global economy”, pursuing policies that are efficient, competitive and resilient, and being self-sustaining and self-generating.

INITIATIVES UNDER ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT

Affordable Rental Housing Complexes for urban migrants/poor

Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana

Credit Guarantee Scheme for Subordinate Debt

Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan

GRAM UJALA scheme

Insurance Scheme for Health Workers Fighting COVID-19

MOFPI Provides 50% Subsidy on air Transportation from North-Eastern and Himalayan States

Operation Greens (TOP to TOTAL)

PMGKY-Ujjwala

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PM-GKAY)