Key Facts about Water Hyacinth:


  • Water hyacinth, scientifically known as Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Pontederiaceae),is an aquatic weed commonly found in waterbodies across South Asia, including
  • Introduced to India during British colonial rule as an ornamental aquatic plant from South America, it produces beautiful purple flowers with high aesthetic value.




  • Despite its beauty, water hyacinth is an obnoxious weed that can suffocate surface freshwater sources such as rivers, streams, ponds, dams, lakes, and
  • Its rapid growth rate allows it to quickly dominate closed waterbodies, obstructing sunlight and reducing oxygen levels, making them unsuitable for commercial fishery, transportation, and
  • The plant’s prolific growth requires expensive and labour-intensive removal efforts to maintain



  • While considered a nuisance, water hyacinth has been used as a bio-fertilizer in some

organic agriculture practices.

  • It also exhibits phytoremediation properties, meaning it can trap and remove toxic metabolites and heavy metals from water, making it potentially beneficial for water purification

Key Points from “State of Punjab vs Davinder Singh” Case: 

Significance of the Case:

The Supreme Court of India is set to deliver a judgment on whether State governments can make sub-classifications within the proportion prescribed to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in public employment.



Background of the Case:

Originating from a circular issued by the Government of Punjab in 1975, the case pertains to the reservation of seats for specific groups within the SC category, which was later challenged in court.

Legal Precedents:

The case involves revisiting the judgment in E.V. Chinnaiah vs the State of Andhra Pradesh, where the Supreme Court ruled against State governments modifying the President’s list of SCs, highlighting the exclusive authority of Parliament in this matter.

Contention Raised:

The Punjab government persisted in its sub-classification efforts despite earlier judicial setbacks, leading to the enactment of the Punjab Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes (Reservation in Services) Act, 2006.

Doubts and Re-evaluation:

The Supreme Court expressed doubts about the correctness of its previous verdict in Chinnaiah, prompting a fresh hearing by a seven-judge Bench to reconsider the issues raised.

Legal Framework and Constitutional Principles:

The case delves into the interpretation of Articles 14 to 16 of the Constitution, emphasizing the promise of substantive equality and the obligation of governments to ensure fair treatment and correction of historical wrongs through reservations.

Interpretation of Article 341:

The case questions whether Article 341 prohibits sub-classification within the SC list, highlighting the need to view reservations not as conflicting with equality but as a means to furthering it.

Argument for Sub-Classification:

The sub-classification proposed by the Punjab law aims to address the varying degrees of backwardness within the SC category, aligning with the Constitution’s principle of reasonable classifications to achieve equality.

Call for Serious Consideration:

The Supreme Court is urged to recognize the power of State governments to provide special measures for the most discriminated castes within SCs and STs, aligning with the constitutional mandate to realize the idea of equal opportunity and substantive equality.


Key Points from the Article on Poverty Trends:

Sub-Saharan Africa’s Poverty Increase:

While global poverty has declined, Sub-Saharan Africa has seen a significant increase in poverty levels, rising from 278 million people identified as poor in 1990 to 397 million in 2019, particularly exacerbated after 2008 due to conflicts.



Contrast with Other Regions:

In contrast, South Asia witnessed a substantial decrease in poverty, with the number of poor people declining from 1.62 billion in 1990 to 221 million in 2019. However, the share of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa increased from 13.8% in 1990 to 56.6% in 2019.



Poverty Rates:

Although poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa reduced in terms of the region’s population share, it remained concentrated in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS), including countries like South Sudan, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with poverty rates above 60%.



Impact of Conflict:

Poverty levels in West Asia and North Africa increased significantly after 2014 due to conflicts in countries like Syria, Libya, Iraq, and Yemen, highlighting the adverse effects of instability on poverty reduction efforts.



Stability and Economic Growth:

The World Bank emphasizes the importance of stability in poverty reduction efforts, noting that economic growth is closely linked to stability. Countries like China and India have achieved significant poverty reduction due to their stable economic environments over the past few decades.

Key Points from the Article on Nuclear Waste Management: 

Introduction to Nuclear Waste:

Nuclear waste is generated in fission reactors when atoms of certain elements absorb neutrons, producing radioactive byproducts. Managing this waste is a significant challenge due to its high radioactivity and potential environmental hazards.

Handling Spent Fuel:

Spent fuel, the main source of nuclear waste, is initially stored underwater to cool before being transferred to dry casks for longer-term storage. Other liquid waste from nuclear plants is treated and stored accordingly.



Methods of Dealing with Waste:

Options for nuclear waste management include geological disposal, reprocessing, and storage in dry casks. Each method has its advantages and challenges, with reprocessing yielding additional fissile material but also posing proliferation risks.



Issues Associated with Nuclear Waste:

Challenges include uncertainty in waste treatment effectiveness, environmental concerns, and the ethical dilemma of exporting hazardous waste. Failures in waste management facilities underscore the need for robust safety measures.



Cost of Waste Management:

Waste management accounts for a significant portion of nuclear power costs, adding to the overall expense of nuclear energy production.



India’s Approach to Nuclear Waste:

India has reprocessing plants for spent fuel, with waste from nuclear power stations managed on-site. Delays in the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) raise concerns about waste management capabilities.

Overall, the article highlights the complexities and importance of effective nuclear waste management in ensuring the safety and sustainability of nuclear energy production.

Caution Against Unapproved Drugs by CDSCO


  • TheCentral Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) issued a caution regarding unapproved
  • Specific focus on “New Drugs”

Examples Provided:

  • Mentionedinstances like Meropenem and Disodium
  • Highlighted cases where manufacturers were found producing or marketing drugs without proper

Directive from CDSCO:

  • Emphasised that no new drug should be manufactured for sale without approval from the licensing
  • Manufacturers intending to produce new drugs must obtain permission from the Central licensing

Action Plan:

  • Directed all manufacturers to be informed about Meropenem and Disodium
  • Instructedcancellation of permissions granted for these drugs if

Communication to Stakeholders:

Communication sent to all zonal and sub-zonal offices of the CDSCO and the Indian Drugs/Pharmaceutical Association Forum.


CDSCO’s proactive measure to ensure compliance and safety in drug manufacturing and sale.