Why is in news?

  • The virus acquired an unexpectedly high number of mutations.

About Mpox (monkeypox):

  • Mpox (monkeypox) is a viral illness caused by the monkeypox virus.
  • It is a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus. Two different clades exist: clade I and clade II
  • Common symptoms of mpox are a skin rash or mucosal lesions.
  • It can last 2–4 weeks accompanied by fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • Mpox can be transmitted to humans through physical contact with someone who is infectious, with contaminated materials, or with infected animals.
  • Laboratory confirmation of mpox is done by testing skin lesion material by PCR.
  • Mpox is treated with supportive care.
  • Vaccines and therapeutics developed for smallpox and approved for use in some countries can be used for mpox in some circumstances.
  • Mpox can be prevented by avoiding physical contact with someone who has mpox. Vaccination can help prevent infection for people at risk.



  • Kavach is a cab signalling train control system with anti-collision features.
  • It was developed over a period of 10 years, starting in 2012, by the Indian Railways Research Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO).
  • Kavach is designed to give out warnings to the loco pilot in case he/she does not notice the ‘red signal,’ and instead of stopping, is going to overshoot the signal.
  • After giving warnings on the locopilot’s display, if the pilot does not slow down below 15 kilometres per hour, the Kavach system automatically applies brakes to bring the train to a halt.

How is the Kavach system deployed?

  • Kavach system is to be deployed with three components.
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in the tracks: RFID tech uses radio waves to identify people or objects.
  • It uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and read information contained in a wireless device from a distance without making physical contact or requiring a line of sight. 2. The locomotive (driver’s cabin):
  • It is provided with RFID readers, computer, and brake interface equipment.
  • Radio infrastructure: Towers and modems are installed at railway stations.

How does Kavach infrastructure work?

  • The three components of Kavach on rail tracks, locomotives and at railway stations are communicating with each other to monitor train movements, and transmit signals ahead to locomotives.
  • Their function is not affected by visual interferences like hilly geography or haze.
  • There is direct loco-to-loco communication and information regarding location.
  • Track IDs are exchanged in case it is noted that both trains are on the same line.
  • The locomotives have antennas which communicate with towers on railway stations and display warnings to the driver on his monitor.



Why is in news?

  • India’s agricultural exports have fallen 11.6% year-on-year
  • Reasons:
  1. The impact of global prices
  • India’s farm trade is strongly correlated with world prices.
  • The UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Food Price Index (FPI) rose from an average of 96.5 points in 2019-20 to139.5 points in 2022-23.
  1. The impact of export curbs
  • In July 2023, exports of white non-basmati rice were banned altogether.
  1. Double whammy
  • Declining international prices not only lower the cost competitiveness of the country’s agricultural exports, but also make its farmers more vulnerable to imports.
  • This is being witnessed in cotton and edible oils.


Why is in news?

  • Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS) 315 at Goa ends de-inducted IL-38 after 46 years of glorious service to the nation.

About IL-38:

  • The Ilyushin Il-38 is a maritime patrol aircraft and anti-submarine warfare aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
  • It was commissioned into the Indian Navy in 1977 and remained a formidable air asset.
  • It is an all-weather aircraft with long endurance and substantial operating range.


Why is in news?

  • India has started the process of bringing in a National Security Strategy.

What is a National Security Strategy?

  • A National Security Strategy document outlines the country’s security objectives, and the ways to be adopted to achieve these.
  • It defines traditional, non-traditional threats and opportunities while introducing accountability of agencies tasked with the implementation of such responsibilities.
  • A national security strategy would guide the military as well as critical defence and security reforms with strategic implications.
  • It provides a holistic view of the overall national security, the threats and the roadmap to address them.

 Countries with a National Security Strategy:

  • Most developed countries with an advanced military and security infrastructure have a National Security Strategy.
  • The US, the UK and Russia have published national security strategies.
  • China has such a strategy called the Comprehensive National Security.
  • Pakistan also has brought out a National Security Policy 2022-2026.


Balban’s Tomb

  • Balban’s tomb was built in the 13th century and now renovated from ruins.
  • The Tomb of Balban is located inside Mehrauli’s Archaeological Park.
  • He was buried within the archaeological park, in a building once built by the Sultan himself called the Dar-ul-Amaan (Haven of Safety)”.
  • The true arches of Balban’s tomb have the keystone placed at the centre.
  • It evenly distributes the weight of the superstructure. From here on, True arches became a common feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture of Delhi.

About Balban:

  • Ghiyas-ud-din Balban was a Sultan of the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty.
  • He ruled from Delhi between 1266 AD and 1287 AD.
  • He was sold as a slave to the then-ruler Iltumish in 1232 CE.