Why is in news?
- The virus acquired an unexpectedly high number of mutations.
About Mpox (monkeypox):
- Mpox (monkeypox) is a viral illness caused by the monkeypox virus.
- It is a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus. Two different clades exist: clade I and clade II
- Common symptoms of mpox are a skin rash or mucosal lesions.
- It can last 2–4 weeks accompanied by fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes.
- Mpox can be transmitted to humans through physical contact with someone who is infectious, with contaminated materials, or with infected animals.
- Laboratory confirmation of mpox is done by testing skin lesion material by PCR.
- Mpox is treated with supportive care.
- Vaccines and therapeutics developed for smallpox and approved for use in some countries can be used for mpox in some circumstances.
- Mpox can be prevented by avoiding physical contact with someone who has mpox. Vaccination can help prevent infection for people at risk.
TRAIN COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS) – KAVACH
- Kavach is a cab signalling train control system with anti-collision features.
- It was developed over a period of 10 years, starting in 2012, by the Indian Railways Research Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO).
- Kavach is designed to give out warnings to the loco pilot in case he/she does not notice the ‘red signal,’ and instead of stopping, is going to overshoot the signal.
- After giving warnings on the locopilot’s display, if the pilot does not slow down below 15 kilometres per hour, the Kavach system automatically applies brakes to bring the train to a halt.
How is the Kavach system deployed?
- Kavach system is to be deployed with three components.
- Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in the tracks: RFID tech uses radio waves to identify people or objects.
- It uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and read information contained in a wireless device from a distance without making physical contact or requiring a line of sight. 2. The locomotive (driver’s cabin):
- It is provided with RFID readers, computer, and brake interface equipment.
- Radio infrastructure: Towers and modems are installed at railway stations.
How does Kavach infrastructure work?
- The three components of Kavach on rail tracks, locomotives and at railway stations are communicating with each other to monitor train movements, and transmit signals ahead to locomotives.
- Their function is not affected by visual interferences like hilly geography or haze.
- There is direct loco-to-loco communication and information regarding location.
- Track IDs are exchanged in case it is noted that both trains are on the same line.
- The locomotives have antennas which communicate with towers on railway stations and display warnings to the driver on his monitor.
Why is in news?
- India’s agricultural exports have fallen 11.6% year-on-year
- The impact of global prices
- India’s farm trade is strongly correlated with world prices.
- The UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Food Price Index (FPI) rose from an average of 96.5 points in 2019-20 to139.5 points in 2022-23.
- The impact of export curbs
- In July 2023, exports of white non-basmati rice were banned altogether.
- Double whammy
- Declining international prices not only lower the cost competitiveness of the country’s agricultural exports, but also make its farmers more vulnerable to imports.
- This is being witnessed in cotton and edible oils.
Why is in news?
- Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS) 315 at Goa ends de-inducted IL-38 after 46 years of glorious service to the nation.
- The Ilyushin Il-38 is a maritime patrol aircraft and anti-submarine warfare aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
- It was commissioned into the Indian Navy in 1977 and remained a formidable air asset.
- It is an all-weather aircraft with long endurance and substantial operating range.
NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY
Why is in news?
- India has started the process of bringing in a National Security Strategy.
What is a National Security Strategy?
- A National Security Strategy document outlines the country’s security objectives, and the ways to be adopted to achieve these.
- It defines traditional, non-traditional threats and opportunities while introducing accountability of agencies tasked with the implementation of such responsibilities.
- A national security strategy would guide the military as well as critical defence and security reforms with strategic implications.
- It provides a holistic view of the overall national security, the threats and the roadmap to address them.
Countries with a National Security Strategy:
- Most developed countries with an advanced military and security infrastructure have a National Security Strategy.
- The US, the UK and Russia have published national security strategies.
- China has such a strategy called the Comprehensive National Security.
- Pakistan also has brought out a National Security Policy 2022-2026.
PLACES IN NEWS
- Balban’s tomb was built in the 13th century and now renovated from ruins.
- The Tomb of Balban is located inside Mehrauli’s Archaeological Park.
- He was buried within the archaeological park, in a building once built by the Sultan himself called the Dar-ul-Amaan (Haven of Safety)”.
- The true arches of Balban’s tomb have the keystone placed at the centre.
- It evenly distributes the weight of the superstructure. From here on, True arches became a common feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture of Delhi.
- Ghiyas-ud-din Balban was a Sultan of the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty.
- He ruled from Delhi between 1266 AD and 1287 AD.
- He was sold as a slave to the then-ruler Iltumish in 1232 CE.