• The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent intergovernmental organization of oil-exporting developing nations that coordinates and unifies the petroleum policies of its Member Countries.
  • It seeks to ensure the stabilisation of oil prices in the international oil markets, with a view to eliminate harmful and unnecessary fluctuations.
  • It was founded on September 14, 1960.
  • It was the result of a meeting that took place in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad.
  • It was attended by the five founding Members of the Organization: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
  • It is headquartered in Vienna.
  • Currently, the Organization has a total of 13 Member Countries. Qatar is the last country to terminate its membership.
  • In its biannual meetings, oil ministers agree on production quotas for each member.
  • They can control production since most of the member countries have state-run oil firms.


  • Forest (Conservation) Amendment Bill, 2023 allows for the diversion of forest land for various projects, including roads, railways, and strategic national security projects, within 100 km of India’s international borders.
  • It amends the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.

Objectives of The Forest (Conservation) Amendment Act, 2023:

  • To build forest carbon stock by raising plantations.
  • To make land available for developers to meet their legal obligation towards compensatory afforestation in lieu of forest land diverted for development projects.
  • The Amendment tries to achieve both by restricting the applicability of the FC Act and by freeing up land that is currently locked up as unrecorded forests.

Key Provisions:

  • The amendment primarily aims to tackle the critical issues of climate change and deforestation’s adverse effects, focusing on effective management and afforestation.
  • The law further aims to determine how forests can be utilised for economic gain.
  • As per the amendment, the forest law will now apply exclusively to areas categorised under the Forest Act, 1927 and those designated as such on or after October 25, 1980.
  • The Act will not be applicable to forests that were converted for non-forest use on or after December 12, 1996 and land which falls under 100 kilometres from the China and Pakistan border.
  • To establish security infrastructure and facilities for surveillance, the central government is authorised to construct security measures in areas up to ten hectares.
  • This provision also applies to areas (up to five hectares) which are designated as vulnerable.
  • Within these regions, the government, with the necessary approvals, can implement security protocols as described above.
  • Initiatives like ecotourism, safari, environmental entertainment, and more may be implemented in these areas.
  • The main objective of these initiatives is to improve the livelihoods of those reliant on forest resources, a goal that has drawn criticism from tribal communities and human rights activists.


Why is in news?

In September, the Index of Industrial Production or IIP rose 5.8%, almost half the 14-month-high 10.3% growth in August.

About the Index of Industrial Production

  • The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that indicates the performance of various industrial sectors of the Indian economy.
  • It is calculated and published by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) every month.
  • It is a composite indicator of the general level of industrial activity in the economy.
  • This index gives the growth rates of different industry groups of the economy over a specified time period.
  • The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included in the IIP. The Eight Core Sectors/Industries are:
  1. Electricity
  2. Steel
  3. Refinery products
  4. Crude oil
  5. Coal
  6. Cement
  7. Natural gas
  8. Fertilizers



  • World Diabetes Day is commemorated on November 14.
  • It was established by the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991.
  • It is an opportunity to raise awareness about the impact of diabetes on the health of people.

About Diabetes:

  • Diabetes is a condition that occurs when the blood sugar level gets too high.
  • It is generally developed when the pancreas doesn’t create enough insulin or any at all, or when the body isn’t responding to the effects of insulin properly.
  • Diabetes can affect people of all ages.

Types of Diabetes

  1. Type 2 diabetes: The body doesn’t make enough insulin and/or the body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin (insulin resistance).

This is the most common type of diabetes.

  1. Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
  2. Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas for unknown reasons.

Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1.

  1. Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some people during pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy.

People with gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of developing Type2 diabetes later in life.


  • Model Prisons Act, 2023 replaces the existing 130-year-old colonial law.
  • It is an attempt to shift the focus from “retributive deterrence” to “reform and rehabilitation”.
  • The Model Prisons Act seeks to create provisions for the grant of parole, furlough, and remission to prisoners to encourage good conduct.

Aim of Model Prisons Act, 2023:

  • It aims to provide separate accommodation for women and transgender inmates, ensure the physical and mental well-being of prisoners, and focus on the reformation and rehabilitation of inmates.
  • It intends to bring about “attitudinal change towards prisoners” and initiate vocational training and skill development for prisoners for their reintegration into society.
  • It seeks to bring about “transparency in prison management”.
  • It includes provisions for security assessment and segregation of prisoners; individual sentence planning; grievance-redressal; prison development board; use of technology in prison administration; and protecting society from criminal activities of hardened criminals and habitual offenders. Provisions for establishing high-security jails and open, semi-open jails.
  • Apart from this, new measures for prisoners to video conference with courts have also been introduced.
  • ‘Prisons’ and ‘persons detained therein’ fall under the State List.
  • This means that the responsibility of prison management and administration solely vests with the state government.