Why in the news?

IAS Coaching Centres are being probed by the CCPA.

About CCPA:

  • It is a regulatory body established in 2020 based on the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
  • Nodal Ministry: The Ministry of Consumer Affairs.


  • It will have a Chief Commissioner as head, and only two other commissioners as members one of whom will deal with matters relating to goods while the other will look into cases relating to services.
  • The CCPA will have an Investigation Wing that will be headed by a Director General.
  • District Collectors too, will have the power to investigate complaints of violations of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and false or misleading advertisements.
  • Objective: To promote, protect, and enforce the rights of consumers as a class.
  • It will be empowered to conduct investigations into violations of consumer rights and institute complaints/prosecution, Order recall of unsafe goods and services,Order discontinuation of unfair trade practices and misleading advertisements,Impose penalties on manufacturers/ endorsers/ publishers of misleading advertisements.




  • The Collegium system is a system for the appointment and transfer of judges in the Supreme Court and High Court.
  • It is not rooted in the Constitution. Instead, it has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court.
  • Under the system, the Chief Justice of India (CJI), along with four senior-most Supreme Court judges, recommends the appointment and transfer of judges.
  • A High Court Collegium is led by the incumbent Chief Justice and the two senior most judges of that court.
  • The government can also raise objections and seek clarifications regarding the Collegium’s choices, but if the Collegium reiterates the same names, the government is bound to appoint them to the post.



Why is in news?

  • Ministry of Earth sciences to attend Muizzu inaugural in Maldives.

About Maldives:

  • The Maldives is an island country in the Indian Ocean, located about 400 kilometers southwest of India.
  • The Maldives is made up of over 1,100 coral islands, which are grouped into 26 atolls.
  • The majority of the Maldivian population adheres to Sunni Islam.
  • The official language of the Maldives is Dhivehi, which is an Indo-Aryan language.
  • However, being a low–lying nation, Maldives remains highly susceptible to the adverse impacts of climate change and rising sea levels.



Why is in news?

The 10th meeting of Defence Ministers from countries belonging to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its dialogue partners was held in Indonesia.

 About ASEAN:

  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional organization which was established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the Asia-Pacific’s post-colonial states.
  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, and One Community”.
  • 8th August is observed as ASEAN Day.
  • ASEAN Secretariat – Indonesia, Jakarta.
  • It is an organization made up of 10 Southeast Asian countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Objectives of ASEAN:

  • To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
  • To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.
  • To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, the improvement of transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of peoples.
  • To promote Southeast Asian studies.
  • To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations.


Why is in news?

  • A special session of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly has been convened to readopt certain Bills returned to the Government by Governor.

About the Role of Governor:


  • There shall be a Governor for each state (Articles 153 of the Constitution of India).
  • The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution of India (Article 154).
  • The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal (Article 155).
  • A person to be eligible for appointment as Governor should be citizen of India and has completed age of 35 years (Article 157).
  • The Governor shall not be a member of the Legislature or Parliament; shall not hold any office of profit, shall be entitled to emoluments and allowances. (Article 158).
  • Every Governor and every person discharging the function of the Governor shall make a subscribe an oath or Affirmation (Article 159).
  • The Governor shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, etc. (Article 161).
  • There shall be Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advice the Governor in the exercise of his functions except in so far as he is by or under the Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion. (Article 163).
  • The Governor appoints Chief Minister and other Ministers. (Article 164).
  • The Governor appoints the Advocate General for the State. (Article 165).
  • All executive actions of the Governor of a State shall be expressed to be taken in the name of Governor. (Article 166).
  • The Governor shall, from time to time, summon and prorogue the House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly. (Article 174).
  • The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly.The Governor may send messages to the House. (Article 175).
  • Special Address to the House by the Governor. (Article 176).
  • The Governor assents, withholds assent, or reserves for the consideration of the Bill passed by the Legislative Assembly. (Article 200).
  • The Governor shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before the House, a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure. (Article 202).
  • No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor. (Article 203(3)).
  • The Governor shall cause to be laid before the House another statement showing estimated amount of expenditure. (Article 205).
  • The Governor may promulgate the Ordinances under certain circumstances. (Article 213).
  • The Governor is consulted for appointment of Judges of High Court. (Article 217).




Why is in news?

The Indian Navy has completed its second anti-piracy patrol in the Gulf of Guinea (GoG) in the Atlantic Ocean with its offshore patrol vessel INS Sumedha.


  • Gulf of Guinea is a part of the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean off the western African coast.
  • It covers 11,000 square kilometres (4,247sq miles) and stretches from Angola to Senegal.
  • It is one of the world’s most important shipping routes.
  • The Niger and Volta rivers flow into he Gulf of Guinea.