The Emissions Gap Report is released by UN Environment Programme (UNEP).

Highlights of the report:

  • It states that despite current pledges under the Paris Agreement, the world would see a 2.5-2.9 degree temperature rise above pre-industrial levels this century if adequate steps are not taken.
  • Global greenhouse gas emissions rose by 1.2 per cent from 2021 to 2022, reaching a record 57.4 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.
  • It noted that nearly 80 per cent of historical cumulative emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and land use came from the G20 countries, with the largest contributions from China, the US and the European Union.
  • The report predicted that the world could pass several catastrophic points of no return if the temperature goes by 3 degree Celsius.
  • The least developed countries contributed just 4 percent.
  • India accounts for 18 per cent of the world population, but has contributed just 5 per cent of the warming.
  • Globally, the 10 per cent of the population with the highest income accounted for nearly half (48 per cent) of emissions with two-thirds of this group living in developed countries.
  • The bottom 50 per cent of the world population contributed only 12 per cent of total emissions.
  • 97 nations covering approximately 81 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions had adopted net-zero pledges either in law (27 countries) or in a policy document (54 countries).


Why is in news?

A team of researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar has found the presence of tantalum, a rare metal, in the Sutlej river sand in Punjab.

About Tantalum:

  • Tantalum is a rare metal with the atomic number 73.
  • It is grey, heavy, very hard, and one of the most corrosion-resistant metals in use today.
  • It possesses high corrosion resistance because when exposed to air, it forms an oxide layer that is extremely difficult to remove, even when it interacts with strong and hot acid environments.
  • When pure, tantalum is ductile, meaning it can be stretched, pulled, or drawn into a thin wire or thread without breaking.
  • It also has an extremely high melting point, exceeded only by tungsten and rhenium.

Uses of tantalum:

  • Tantalum is most prominently used in the electronics sector.
  • The capacitors made from tantalum are capable of storing more electricity in smaller sizes without much leakage than any other type of capacitor.
  • This makes them ideal for use in portable electronic devices such as smartphones, laptops and digital cameras.
  • As tantalum has a high melting point, it is frequently used as a substitute for platinum, which is more expensive.
  • It is also used to make components for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aeroplanes and missiles.
  • It does not react with bodily fluids and is used to make surgical equipment and implants, like artificial joints.



  • Exercise VAJRA PRAHAR is a joint exercise conducted between Indian Army and US Army Special Forces.
  • It aims at sharing best practices and experiences in areas such as joint mission planning and operational tactics.
  • The first edition was conducted in the year 2010 in India.
  • The current edition is being conducted in Umroi Cantonment, Meghalaya.





Why is in news?

Ministry of Education asks States to encourage use of SATHEE portal.

About SATHEE portal:

  • SATHEE is an open learning platform available to students free of cost.
  • It stands for Self-Assessment Test and Help for Entrance Exams (SATHEE).
  • It was launched by the Ministry of and the IIT-Kanpur.
  • It has launched a 45-day crash course for aspirants to test their level of preparation.
  • The portal uses artificial intelligence (AI) to interact with students, and can be customized to each student’s pace of learning.
  • SATHEE’s integrated AI chatbot helps students align their learning needs.
  • It is in line with the National Education Policy.
  • The portal hosts lectures and video content prepared by Professors and students of the IITs, and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS).


 Mayuram Samuel Vedanayagam

  • Mayuram Samuel Vedanayagam is considered the pioneer of modern Tamil prose and novel.
  • He had served as district munsif, a post in which he discharged his duties with great ability.
  • He was also a composer of many ‘keerthanas’ set to Carnatic ragas.
  • He is considered the pioneer of modern Tamil prose and novel.
  • His work PrathapaMudaliarCharithram was written in 1857 and published in 1879.
  • It was the first novel in the Tamil language.
  • His second novel was SugunaSundariCharithiram.
  • His two prose works Pen Kalvi and Pen Manam advocate education for women and show him as a social reformer.
  • His religious works are Kochakappa, Mata Patikankal, Tayabarakanni, Deva Thothiramalai, TiruvarulMalai, Deva Mata Antati, and TiruvarulAntati.
  • His musical works include SarvaSamayaSamarasaKirtanai, Satya VetaKirtanai, PeriyanayakiAmmaPatikam, and Pen Mati Malai.