• World Students Day is observed on October 15 each year.
  • The former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam’s birthday is commemorated on this day.
  • He served as the 11th Indian President from 2002 to 2007.
  • Kalam dedicated his whole life to the improvement of children’s education and welfare throughout India.
  • World Students Day has adopted a theme: ‘FAIL,’ which stands for ‘First Attempt in Learning.’



  • It is the first artificial intelligence (AI) based early warning system to prevent wild elephants from getting hit by trains on railway lines in Tamil Nadu.
  • It is built along the Ettimadai–Walayar section, which links Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • The system will give an additional layer of protection for elephants.
  • 12 e-surveillance towers were installed for the project.
  • To detect elephant movement, thermal imaging cameras have been fixed on all towers.
  • The towers for thermal imaging cameras have been installed in the highly vulnerable 7.05-km stretch of the Ettimadai–Walayar section, passing through Solakkarai reserve forest.
  • It aims at achieving the goal of ‘zero elephant deaths’ on railway tracks in the region.


  • Waders and raptors flocking the Pallikaranai marshland for the migratory season has been raised.
  • Garganey, Northern pintail, Northern shoveler, Common teal, Western yellow wagtail, Grey-headed lapwing, Common sandpiper, and Wood sandpiper were spotted. Raptors, such as red-necked falcon, osprey, and greater-spotted eagle were also sighted.
  • Good rainfall in Chennai during the southwest monsoon has kept the Pallikaranai marsh filled.
  • Despite threats of new infrastructure and encroachments, winged visitors continue to arrive at the marshland.
  • 196 species including 72 migratory birds have been documented.

Ozone holes grow and shrink every year

The ozone layer is a trace gas in the stratosphere.
It is one of the four layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.
It functions as a protective gas shield that absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
It is protecting humans and ecosystems from dangerous amounts of UV.
Most skin cancers are caused by exposure to high amounts of UV radiation.
It shields us from UV rays helps reduce cancer rates.
The size of the ozone hole over Antarctica fluctuates each year, opening each year in August and closing again in November or December.
The ozone hole opens up because of the rotation of the Earth causing specials winds over the closed landmass of Antarctica.
The winds create a mini climate, creating a shield over Antarctica preventing it from mixing with surrounding air.
When the winds die down, the hole closes.

What caused the giant ozone hole this year?

Scientists believe this year’s big ozone hole could be due to the volcanic eruptions at Hunga Tongain Tonga during December 2022 and January 2023.
The water had an impact on the ozone layer through chemical reactions and changed its heating rate.
The water vapor also contained other elements that can deplete ozone like bromine and iodine.