• The European Union has awarded its top human rights prize to Mahsa Amini.
  • The 22-year-old died in custody after allegedly violating the strict Iranian hijab (headscarf) rule for women.
  • Her death sparked protests that presented the most serious challenge to the Iranian authorities in decades.
  • Iranian-Kurdish Mahsa Amini was visiting Tehran last year when she was arrested by the morality police for allegedly breaching Iran’s strict Islamic dress code for women.
  • Her death generated a global movement known as “Woman, Life, Freedom,” calling for an end to Iran’s imposition of a headscarf on all women and other discriminatory laws.
  • The award comes two weeks after the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to an imprisoned Iranian rights campaigner, Narges Mohammadi.
  • She has been fighting against the mandatory headscarf and the oppression of women in Iran.

Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought:

  • It is awarded each year by the European Parliament.
  • It was set up in 1988 to honour individuals and organisations defending human rights and fundamental freedoms.
  • It is named in honour of Soviet physicist and political dissident Andrei Sakharov.
  • The prize money is 50 000 euros.
  • The award will be presented in a European Parliament ceremony in December.



  • A Study on Cervical cancer was published in The Lancet Regional Health Southeast Asia.
  • It said Nearly 52% of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer between 2012 and 2015 survived.
  • It found that there was significant variations in survival rates across regions.
  • Ahmedabad urban registry demonstrated the highest survival rate at 61.5%.
  • Tripura reported a survival rate of 31.6%.
  • The overall survival rate for these cases was 52%.
  • Survival rates were notably lower in India’s northeastern region.
  • Factors including access to diagnostic services, effective treatment varied across the population, distance from clinical care facilities, travel costs, co-morbidities, and poverty contributed to survival rates, noted the study.



  • The first edition of the Chennai International Book Fair (CIBF) was held in Chennai in January.
  • It has paved the way for translation of Tamil works into many foreign languages.
  • Author Perumal Murugan’s Pookuli is being translated in Amharic and Italian.
  • Author Ramaswamy’s Oru Puliyamarathin Kathai (The Tale of a Tamarind Tree) has already been translated into Slovak.
  • The works of Sahitya Academy Award-winning Tamil writers, Periyar, C.N. Annadurai, and M. Karunanidhi, and nationalised books will be translated into European languages.

About Tamil Nadu Translation Grant and the fellowship programme

  • The aim of the Tamil Nadu Translation Grant programme is to promote Tamil fiction, non-fiction and children’s literature from Tamil Nadu (India) by translating and publishing them in different languages around the world.
  • This program is aimed at promoting Tamil literature worldwide and helping it reach a wider audience.
  • Through this grant, non-Tamil publishers in India as well as foreign publishers will be able to translate and publish Tamil titles into their languages.


  • ISRO will test the performance of the crew escape system of the planned human space flight mission.
  • ISRO will carry out the first of a series of tests of systems and procedures with the aim to ultimately launch an Indian astronaut into space.
  • The Flight Test Vehicle Abort Mission-1 (TV-D1) will demonstrate the performance of the Crew Escape System of the Gaganyaan project.
  • The flight will be the first of two abort missions to test the safety mechanisms that will allow the Gaganyaan crew to leave the spacecraft in an emergency.
  • The test exercise will see the rocket rise to an altitude of almost 17 km before an abort signal is triggered.
  • It will lead to the separation of the crew module.
  • It will descend using a parachute for a splashdown in the Bay of Bengal.

How the Gaganyaan test vehicle liftoff and splashdown will happen?

  • The test mission will last a total 532 seconds from liftoff to the crew module splashdown about 10 km from the Sriharikota coast.
  • The crew module will be empty for the test.

What will be tested?

  • TV-D1 flight will demonstrate the new Test Vehicle.
  • This is the reason why the test has been named Test Vehicle-Demonstration 1 (TV-D1).
  • Second, it will demonstrate a basic version of the crew module, the capsule in which the astronauts will be seated during the Gaganyaan human space flight.
  • The test will check the functioning of systems for separating the crew module from the rocket in case of a mid-flight emergency (abort mission) and the escape of astronauts.

The new Test Vehicle

  • TV-D1 mission will use a low-cost basic rocket that ISRO has built specifically to test systems.
  • It will use existing liquid propulsion technology.
  • ISRO has put safety of the crew at the centre of the Gaganyaan project.


Why is in news?

Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the first leg of the Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS).

About the RRTS project:

  • The RRTS is an integrated, mass transit network project.
  • It aims to ensure “balanced and sustainable urban development” through better connectivity and access.
  • It is India’s first mass rapid system dedicated to regional connectivity.
  • It is Capable of running at speeds up to 180 km/hour.
  • It is also known as Namo Bharat.
  • It is faster when compared with metros.
  • It will cater to commuters who want to travel relatively longer distances across the NCR in a short time.



  • World Statistics Day is celebrated on October 20th every five years.
  • It aims to highlight the importance of statistics in shaping our world, making informed decisions, and promoting sustainable development.
  • It recognizes the role of national statistical offices and organizations in collecting and disseminating data for policymaking and improving the quality of life for people worldwide.
  • The most recent World Statistics Day was observed in 2020.
  • The next one is scheduled for 2025.


  • National Solidarity Day is an observed in India on October 20. It is a day set to pay tribute to the Indian Army’s triumph over the Chinese Army during the Indo-China War of 1962.
  • This day is marked with great reverence, serving as a reminder of the valour and fortitude displayed by Indian forces in safeguarding the nation’s sovereignty and security.