Why is in news?

  • The Supreme Court directed Maharashtra Assembly Speaker to decide disqualification petitions filed under the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) of the Constitution.
  • A three-judge Bench led by Chief Justice D.Y. Chandrachud ordered the Speaker, in his capacity as a tribunal under the Tenth Schedule, to decide the disqualification petitions within three months.

About the Office of Speaker:

  • The speaker is elected by the Lok Sabha from amongst its members.
  • The date of the election of the speaker is fixed by the president.
  • The constitution states that the speaker must be a member of the house.
  • The house elects its presiding officer by a simple majority of members present, who vote in the house.
  • Usually, a member belonging to the ruling party is elected speaker.
  • It is the speaker who decides the questions of disqualification of a member of the Lok Sabha, arising on the ground of defection under the provisions of the Tenth Schedule.
  • The 52nd amendment to the Indian Constitution vests this power in the Speaker


Cauvery North Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Cauvery North Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
  • It was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 2014 by the Government of Tamil Nadu under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • The sanctuary is named after its location, situated above the north bank of the Cauvery River in Tamil Nadu. It is connected to the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka, with the southern bank of the Cauvery River forming the boundary.
  • The sanctuary falls under the Melagiri Hill ranges, which serve as a crucial wildlife corridor at the confluence of the Eastern and Western Ghats.



  • The Government is observing the birth anniversary of SardarVallabhbhai Patel as the ‘RashtriyaEktaDiwas’ (National Unity Day) on 31st October every year.
  • This occasion provides an opportunity to re-affirm the inherent strength and resilience of our nation to withstand the actual and potential threats to the unity, integrity and security of our country.
  • It was celebrated for the first time in 2014.


  • The LAMBADIs are a nomadic tribe.
  • They are settled in various states across the country, including Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • They are primarily agriculturalist and cattle-rearers.
  • The Women are know for their embroidery.
  • The traditional Tamil Lambadi embroidery designs are all geometrical patterns with squares, rectangles, and circles with multi colour vibrant costume.
  • They have also been influenced by the local forests, birds, fruits and flowers.


Why is in news?

  • A five-judge bench of the Supreme Court led by Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud is to hear petitions challenging the constitutional validity of the Centre’s electoral bonds scheme.

What are electoral bonds?

  • Electoral bonds was introduced in Union Budget session in 2017.
  • They are interest-free “bearer instruments”.
  • They are payable to the bearer on demand, similar to a promissory note.
  • Electoral bonds allow Indian citizens or a body incorporated in India to purchase bonds, enabling anonymous donations to political parties.
  • The denominations range from Rs1,000 to Rs1 crore. These bonds can be bought from authorised SBI branches through accounts complying with KYC norms.
  • The political parties can choose to encash the bonds within 15 days of receiving them and fund their electoral expenses.
  • They can only be purchased between 10-day windows falling in the months of January, April, July, and October.
  • Electoral bonds can only be used to donate to political parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the Peoples Act, 1951, securing at least 1% of the votes polled in the last election to the House of the People or a Legislative Assembly.
  • Section 29A of the RPA deals with the registration of associations and bodies as political parties with the Election Commission.

Why were electoral bonds introduced?

  • To cleanse the system of political funding in the country” and bring about “transparency in electoral funding in India.



  • People from different parts of the country carried soil from over 700 districts to Kartavya Path in Delhi as part of the ‘Meri Maati, MeraDesh’ initiative. People dressed in traditional outfits and stood in long queues to pour the soil in the ‘AmritKalash’.
  • The campaign is a tribute to the bravehearts who have sacrificed their lives for the country.
  • The programme was also attended by NCC, BSF, CISF, and CRPF personnel.